Cromwell, Ronald E., David H. L. Olson & David G. Fournier (1976): Tools and Techniques for Diagnosis and Evaluation in Marital and Family Therapy. In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 1–49.
Abstract: This is a slightly edited version of a chapter to appear in a forthcoming book. 1 It is a beginning attempt at codification of existing tools and techniques and is therefore nonexhaustive. The authors welcome feedback from readers concerning omissions and information on new techniques, references, and applicability to therapeutic settings.
Bartlett, Francis H. (1976): Illusion and Reality in R. D. Laing. In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 51–64.
Abstract: R. D. Laing never fully brings together his extraordinary empathy for schizophrenic individuals and his critical view of schizogenic families. In his writings, family and social interactions increasingly dissolve into subjective ‘scenarios,’ and ultimately, ‘inner space’ becomes the source of the redeeming light. This development has unfortunate psychiatric, philosophical, and political implications.
Karpel, Mark (1976): Individuation: From Fusion to Dialogue. In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 65–82.
Abstract: Growing interest in concepts of fusion and individuation within a number of different theoretical systems of psychotherapy suggests an emerging shift in perspective in the conceptualization of psychopathology and psychotherapy. This shift may represent a first step in the integration of individual and relational dynamic theories. A theoretical framework for the exploration of processes of fusion and individuation is presented, with suggested applications for the study of problems experienced by adult couples. The process of individuation from fusion to dialogue is outlined in the description of four modes of relationship. In this context, the paper suggests ways in which a variety of problematic relational patterns seen in couples may be viewed as reflecting the partners’ struggles to move from fusion to dialogue.
Shapiro, Rodney J. & Robert I. Harris (1976): Family Therapy in Treatment of the Deaf: A Case Report. In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 83–96.
Abstract: Deaf patients with psychological problems have developmental handicaps and clinical characteristics that reduce the effectiveness of traditional modes of psychotherapy. Attempts have been made to utilize individual and group therapy, but family therapy has been largely overlooked as a method of alleviating problems of the deaf. Clinical and research writings provide us with rich insights into the family dynamics of the deaf. These data suggest to the authors that the problems of deaf individuals are largely related to family problems, and therefore merit a family orientation as the focus for treatment. This paper describes an attempt to apply family therapy with a range of deaf patients over a period of two years. From a review of their work, the authors conclude that family therapy can be effective, particularly in the treatment of deaf adolescents and children.
Steinglass, Peter (1976): Experimenting with Family Treatment Approaches to Alcoholism, 1950-1975: A Review. In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 97–123.
Abstract: The attention given family therapy approaches to alcoholism has been disproportionately low in relation to the magnitude of alcohol abuse as a clinical problem and its acknowledged impact on family life. Although the literature to date is limited and most studies should be characterized as pilot in nature, preliminary results have enthusiastically endorsed family therapy approaches to alcoholism. This critical review assesses the existing experimental and clinical literature of the past 25 years. It also offers potential explanations for the reluctance of family therapists to engage this problem more actively.
Tucker, Bernice Z. & Ernest Dyson (1976): The Family and the School: Utilizing Human Resources to Promote Learning. In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 125–141.
Abstract: There is a continuing challenge in our complex society to bridge the gaps that exist between various subsystems. Only by overcoming segmentation can common problems be mutually addressed and the full resources of each subsystem be utilized in finding viable solutions. The project described here brings together members of the family with public school professional staff and a consultant from a family therapy unit. Each system learns from and about the others in an open, sharing environment. The processes of family therapy are utilized with the goals of reversing maladaptive school behavior of children and facilitating constructive interactions both between the family and the school and among school personnel. The uniqueness in this effort lies in the treatment of the staff of a school as a live, dynamic, interacting system having some of the characteristics of a family. The need for mutual respect on the part of consultant and school personnel is documented. Defining and observing boundaries, clarifying roles and creating a non-critical atmosphere provide the security that permits and encourages individuals to share relevant material within agreed-upon parameters. Changes in traditional practices have been achieved. School psychologists have taken on new roles while principals and staffs have learned new techniques and skills for relating to each other and for approaching family-based school learning problems. The non-blaming approach recognizes the child as a member of both a family and school organization. Bringing the family and the school together for dialogue and planning unburdens the child as a conveyor of information and values between the two systems. Thus far, there have been substantial benefits from the project to the schools, to the families, and to the body of professional knowledge from which we all learn and grow.
Renshaw, Jean R. (1976): An Exploration of the Dynamics of the Overlapping Worlds of Work and Family. In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 143–165.
Abstract: The relationship between the working lives and family lives of people in our society is a concern to both families and corporations. This article describes a research project that yielded theoretical statements about the interactions between organization life and family life for members of large corporations; grounded theory methodology and a systems theory approach were used. Data were obtained in a large multinational corporation from managers and their families who were undergoing three different kinds of organizational stress: international transfer, extensive travel, and job change to facilitator of personal and organizational change. The findings give reason for viewing organization and family as interacting systems and for considering the uniqueness of each individual’s response to stressful events. They also indicate that an individual’s feelings of influence over stressful events at the organization-family boundaries are significant for both organizational and family effectiveness.
Bloch, Donald A. (1976): Notes and Comment. In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 167–170.
Hoffman, Lynn (1976): Review – David Kantor and William Lehr (1975): Inside the Family: Toward a Theory of Family Process. San Francisco (Jossey-Bass). In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 171–172.
Allman, Lawrence R. (1976): Review – Norman L. Paul & Betty Byfield Paul (1975): A Marital Puzzle: Transgenerational Analysis in Marriage Counseling. New York (W. W. Norton). In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 172–173.
Houghteling, Peter D. (1976): Review – Edward Shorter (1975): The Making of the Modern Family. New York (Basic Books). In: Family Process, 15 (1), S. 173–173.
Mueller, Peter S. & Monica Mcgoldrick Orfanidis (1976): A Method of Co-Therapy for Schizophrenic Families. In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 179–191.
Abstract: This paper describes a model of treatment for families in which one child has been given the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Male and female therapists adopt structured roles that are used as a paradigm for exploring family patterns. The paradigm employs a three-generational hypothesis that defines schizophrenia as a lifelong, restricting mode of relating, involving the primary family triad, that makes the child vulnerable to repeated psychotic episodes. Therapy is directed at the difficulties of autonomous development within the family by focusing on differentiating the relationship between nuclear and extended family members, especially defining and strengthening generational and sexual boundaries. The second focus of therapy is on the resolution of issues of separation and loss, with attention to unresolved mourning in the family of origin and the concomitant stress in giving up the infantile relationship with the index child in the nuclear family. Stages of therapy will be described including: (a) initiation of therapy, (b) breaking of fusion, (c) repair of alienation, and (d) solidifying the marital alliance and generational boundaries. Case illustrations will be included.
Framo, James L. (1976): Family of Origin as a Therapeutic Resource for Adults in Marital and Family Therapy: You Can and Should go Home Again. In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 193–210.
Abstract: This paper presents a general method of involving adults who are in marital and family therapy in sessions with their family of origin, offering a clinical application of the author’s depth theoretical orientation. The method is based on the thesis that current marital and family difficulties are elaborations of relationship problems of the spouses in their original families. If adults are able to go back to deal directly with past and present issues with their families of origin, an opportunity exists for reconstructive changes to come about in their present family. This present work is compared with Bowen’s methods. Procedures are outlined for preparing for these sessions and for overcoming resistances. Typical courses these sessions tend to take are described, and some preliminary results are presented. Several case histories are presented, and theoretical and clinical implications of this method are discussed.
Shapiro, Linda N. & Cynthia M. Wild (1976): The Product of the Consensus Rorschach in Families of Male Schizophrenics. In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 211–224.
Abstract: A consensus Rorschach was given to the families of 36 male schizophrenics, 13 psychiatrically hospitalized nonschizophrenic controls, and 38 normal controls with the goal of discriminating the families of schizophrenics from the other two groups of families. After the family agreed on a response, each member was asked to write the response on a separate sheet of paper. This study focused on these written responses, the product of the interaction, rather than on the process of reaching agreement. A system was developed to score the responses based on the degree of shared meaning achieved by the family. Adequate interscorer reliability was obtained. The scores significantly differentiated the three groups. More families of schizophrenics had low scores indicating lack of shared meaning than families of hospitalized and normal controls. In the normal control group, more upper-class families had high scores than lower-class families, whereas in the schizophrenic group there was a trend in the opposite direction.
Sigal, John J., Carol B. Barrs & Andrea L. Doubilet (1976): Problems in Measuring the Success of Family Therapy in a Common Clinical Setting: Impasse and Solutions. In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 225–233.
Abstract: Families treated in conjoint therapy in the outpatient clinic of a general community hospital for about a year and other families that refused further contact with the same clinic after no more than two interviews were followed up about four and a half years later. The main difference found was that the treated group reported more new symptoms. The complexities of interpreting the data obtained are used as a basis for discussing problems that confront, and may deter, clinics attempting to evaluate their clinical work by means of controlled, nonfactorial or related designs. Process or correlational studies are suggested as an alternate choice.
Frances, Vera & Allen Frances (1976): The Incest Taboo and Family Structure. In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 235–244.
Abstract: The evolutionary advantage of outbreeding has influenced the family structure and the mating, attachment, and dominance behaviors of all animals. Nature has selected for those species that have evolved family structures with detachment and dominance patterns that create a relatively intact incest barrier. Man inherits from his animal forebears the biological imperative of an incest barrier but brings to it his special complexity of psychology and symbolization – incest barrier becomes incest taboo. We present a discussion of human patterns of separation-individuation and Oedipal conflict and relate this to the detachment and dominance behaviors of animals. This is an interface between psychoanalysis, family theory, and ethology. In addition, we pursue in detail the asymmetrical operation of the incest taboo within the family: that it is stronger for mother-son than for father-daughter than for brother-sister.
Lindsay, J. S. B. (1976): Balance Theory: Possible Consequences of Number of Family Members. In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 245–249.
Abstract: This paper outlines one theoretical issue involved in considering the relationships that may exist in a family. The usual approach is to treat the family as a whole, made up of n members. The main issue here is the effects of the numerical size of the family and the many possible total and sub-total relationships that may exist within family constellations. Family structure and function is multivariate, but the focus here is the numerical factor.
Roman, Melvin, Gerald Bauman, Joseph Borello, Betty Meltzer & Darlene Bregman Ehrenberg (1976): An Effect Of Change In Patient Status On Marital Interaction. In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 251–258.
Abstract: In the treatment of couples and families, even more so than of individuals, therapists invariably are forced to face the problem of assessment of change in the marital or family ‘system.’ The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in marital interaction for a special population, that is, in which one member of each married pair had been, but was no longer, a hospitalized psychiatric patient. The primary question we addressed was whether changes in marital interaction could be amply detected and whether these changes could be attributed to the particular role shift that had occurred in one spouse – from ‘patient’ to ‘non-patient.’ Utilizing a technique called Interaction Testing, which the senior authors devised in 1960, we found that such alterations in marital interaction do indeed arise when one member of the couple moves out of a patient role and that our instrument is useful in elucidating the nature of such effects. In addition, it can be expected that a study of this kind will be of theoretical and methodological value in dealing with the general issues of problem-solving interaction in couples and families. The clinical aspect of the study may also be expected to stimulate useful thinking regarding family therapy in hospital settings, patient management, and aftercare.
Anderson, Carol M. & Elaine S. Malloy (1976): Family Photographs: in Treatment and Training. In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 259–264.
Abstract: The universal appeal of nostalgia and reminiscence makes photographs a natural instrument for studying the impact of the past upon the present. This paper explores photography as a medium for facilitating reminiscence to discover individual roles, interpersonal relationships, and family dynamics. A method is described for using family photographs in treatment and training of clinicians at a Family Therapy Clinic.
Kadis, Leslie (1976): Review – Richard Bandler & John Grinder (1975): The Structure of Magic: A Book About Language and Therapy. Palo Alto (Science and Behavior Books). In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 265–265.
de Stefano, Ron (1976): Review – Walter Kempler (1973): Principles of Gestalt Family Therapy. Oslo (Joh. Nordahls Trykkeri). In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 265–267.
Powers, Fawn (1976): Review – Gerald R. Patterson (1975): Families: Applications of Social Learning to Family Life. Champaign, Ill. (Research Press). In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 267–268.
Foster, Richard (1976): Review – John Papajohn & John Spiegel (1975): Transactions in Families. San Francisco (Jossey-Bass). In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 268–269.
Engel, Brandy (1976): Review – Lonnie Garfield Barbach (1975): For Yourself: The Fulfillment of Female Sexuality. A Guide to Orgasmic Response. New York (Doubleday & Company). In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 269–271.
Glick, Ira D. (1976): Abstracts of Literature. In: Family Process, 15 (2), S. 275–276.
Stierlin, Helm (1976): The Dynamics of Owning and Disowning: Psychoanalytic and Family Perspectives. In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 277–287.
Abstract: The dynamics of owning and disowning one’s inner life have both intrapsychic and transactional or interpersonal dimensions. Freud opened new vistas on our inner world, using psychoanalysis as a tool. Although not unaware of the effects of family members upon each other, Freud’s rejection of the seduction theory of neurosis in 1897 fatefully influenced the future course of psychoanalysis, placing the primary focus on intrapsychic relations. Until today, it has remained the task-perhaps the principal one-of psychoanalytic theorists to do justice to the interpersonal and family realm that Freud neglected, without sacrificing the enormous insights we owe to Freud. Three conditions for successful inner ownership are described: a capacity for self-object differentiation; tolerance of ambivalence; and a sense of physical integrity, of having a cohesive, nuclear ego. The pathology of inner ownership is related to a pathology of interpersonal ownership as transacted on the family level. One form of such relational pathology-parental overowning, as revealed primarily in families with schizophrenic members-is discussed, with a case example.
Herman, Bonnie F. & James E. Jones (1976): Lack of Acknowledgment in the Family Rorschachs of Families With a Child at Risk for Schizophrenia. In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 289–302.
Abstract: Lack of acknowledgment, a characteristic of the direct interactions of families of schizophrenics, was found also to characterize the Family Rorschach interactions of families whose disturbed, non-psychotic adolescents were assessed at high risk for schizophrenia on the basis of parental communication deviance. The same high-risk families had unbalanced interaction patterns as reflected in three measures of family structure.
Aponte, Harry J. (1976): The Family-School Interview: An Eco-Structural Approach. In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 303–311.
Abstract: This paper describes the family-school interview, an intervention with a child, family, and school, taking into account the dynamics of each system in that ecological context and the structural interrelationships of these systems relative to the problem presented by the child.
Minard, Sally (1976): Family Systems Model in Organizational Consultation: Vignettes of Consultation to a Day-Care Center. In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 313–320.
Abstract: ‘Bowen Theory,’1 adapted to organizational dynamics, is presented as a framework for understanding the dysfunctional behavior of individuals in the context of a particular organization.
Klugman, Jeffry (1976): ‘Enmeshment’ and ‘Fusion’. In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 321–323.
Abstract: The paper examines two related concepts utilized by two different schools of family therapy. Any family seen to be ‘enmeshed’ is also seen as ‘fused,’ and vice versa. The difference in the level of focus, on the ‘system containing the individuals’ (structural) or the ‘individual in the system’ (fusion), determines the difference in therapeutic approach of these two schools.
Noone, Robert J. & Robert L. Reddig (1976): Case Studies in the Family Treatment of Drug Abuse. In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 325–332.
Abstract: This article, with case illustrations, attempts to demonstrate that drug-abuse behavior can be understood more clearly in the light of family loyalties and unresolved family crises than from the perspective that drug abusers are social deviates. 1 Drug abuse is viewed as symptomatic, as a signal that both drug abuser and his or her family are having difficulty in getting past a particular stage in the natural unfolding life cycle of a family. Treatment of drug abuse is seen primarily as helping the family to become ‘unstuck,’ thereby freeing the individual’s and family’s energy for the task of self-development and growth rather than expending it to maintain rigid patterns of interaction in an attempt to prevent change.
Montalvo, Braulio (1976): Observations on Two Natural Amnesias. In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 333–342.
Abstract: The role of interpersonal sequences in determining amnesias has not been as explored as the role of intrapsychic conflict. This paper examines two natural amnesias, emphasizing their function as part of the process of sequencing phenomena.
Cromwell, Ronald E., Bradford P. Keeney & Bert N. Adams (1976): Temporal Patterning in the Family. In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 343–348.
Abstract: The authors propose that time be considered as a variable in family process. Previous theory and research on human temporal patterning and experience are reviewed, and empirical generalizations from an initial pilot study concerned with marital and family members’ orientation to ‘morningness’ and ‘nightness’ are presented. Further implications from this work-in-progress are delineated.
Sluzki, Carlos E. (1976): Review – Paul Watzlawick (1976): How Real is Real?Communication, Disinformation, Confusion. New York (Random House). In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 349–349.
Powers, Fawn (1976): Review – Georgia Kline-Graber & Benjamin Graber (1975): Woman’s Orgasm, A Guide to Sexual Satisfaction. Indianapolis/New York (Bobbs-Merrill). In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 349–350.
Engel, Lewis (1976): Review – Robert S. Weiss (1975): Marital Separation. New York (Basic Books). In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 350–351.
Houghteling, Peter D. (1976): Review – Ronald E. Cromwell and David H. Olson (Eds.)(1975): Power in Families. New York (Halsted Press). In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 351–352.
Glick, Ira D. (1976): Abstracts of Literature. In: Family Process, 15 (3), S. 355–355.
Moos, Rudolf H. & Bernice S. Moos (1976): A Typology of Family Social Environments. In: Family Process, 15 (4), S. 357–371.
Abstract: A sample of 100 families measured on ten dimensions of their social environments was subjected to cluster analysis to develop an empirically based taxonomy of families. Six distinctive clusters of families were identified: Expression-Oriented, Structure-Oriented, Independence-Oriented, Achievement-Oriented, Moral/Religious-Oriented and Conflict-Oriented. The clusters showed systematic differences in background characteristics such as size, ethnic minority composition, drinking patterns, and family disturbance and incongruence. Some evidence that certain clusters of families are composed of different sub-clusters was presented. An empirically derived taxonomy of the social environments of families may help to understand how different family environments are linked to different family outcomes.
Constantine, Larry L. (1976): Designed Experience: A Multiple, Goal-Directed Training Program in Family Therapy. In: Family Process, 15 (4), S. 373–387.
Abstract: A family-therapy training program, one of three main branches of the ‘Boston model,’ is described in detail. Salient features of the program include planned integration of a multiplicity of experiential and cognitive learning modes; grounding in a unified, theoretical framework that is neither eclectic nor limited to a single school of thought; focus on nonpathological process in families; and systematic structuring in terms of specific, articulated, training objectives. The goal-directed design process by which training units are developed is explained.
Feldman, Larry B. (1976): Depression and Marital Interaction. In: Family Process, 15 (4), S. 389–395.
Abstract: A family-systems model of depression is presented and discussed. In this model, the intrapsychic concept of cognitive schema and the interpersonal concepts of social stimulation and social reinforcement are integrated within a systems-theory perspective. The effects of positive and negative feedback are delineated, and a concept of depression-triggering and depression-maintaining feedback loops is described. A clinical illustration is utilized to exemplify the theoretical model.
Liebman, Ronald, Paul Honig & Henry Berger (1976): An Integrated Treatment Program for Psychogenic Pain. In: Family Process, 15 (4), S. 397–405.
Abstract: The family characteristics associated with the presence of recurrent abdominal pain are identified. The involvement of the pediatrician and the effects of this involvement on the patient, family, and perpetuation of the symptoms are described. A successful therapeutic program combining behavior modification and family therapy is elaborated. Changes in the structure and functioning of the family are vital to the outcome of therapy and the prevention of recurrence of symptoms.
Tolsdorf, Christopher C. (1976): Social Networks, Support, and Coping: An Exploratory Study. In: Family Process, 15 (4), S. 407–417.
Abstract: This paper reports a study that investigated the areas of stress, support, and coping, using the structural model of the social network. The social network model is borrowed from sociology and anthropology and is used to describe and quantify not only an individual’s immediate family but also all of those with whom the individual has regular contact. By comparing the networks of a sample of ‘normal’ and schizophrenic males, it was possible to identify differences in their relationships to their social networks, in the make-up of the networks themselves, and in the coping styles and recent histories of the subjects. The results suggest, first, that the network model can be used to investigate the larger social system with which individuals interact and, second, that it may be a valuable approach to the expansion of family research.
Napier, Augustus Y. (1976): The Consultation-Demonstration Interview. In: Family Process, 15 (4), S. 419–426.
Abstract: In recent years the consultation-demonstration interview, in which a family is interviewed before a workshop, has become increasingly prevalent. While this method of presenting the therapist’s style of interviewing can be an exciting and valuable learning experience, it can also lead to a sense of boredom and disappointment. In some instances, the experience can be traumatic, especially for the family and the guest therapist. Common pitfalls in the organization and planning of the interview are explored, and a number of specific recommendations are made for attempting to maximize the potential in this interview process. Written to both the planner and the leader of the workshop in family therapy, this paper is based on the author’s personal experience.
Fellner, Carl (1976): The Use of Teaching Stories in Conjoint Family Therapy. In: Family Process, 15 (4), S. 427–431.
Abstract: Two general factors have been singled out as being held in common by all types of psychotherapy: an educational, rational factor (often called ‘content’) and a factor operative in the relationship between the therapist and his patient (often called ‘process’). In the field of family therapy, the non-educational aspects of intervention are sometimes presented in the form of ‘therapeutic, paradoxical communications’ (Haley, Bateson, Jackson, Weakland) or the ‘therapy of the absurd’ (Whitaker, Malone). In the present paper, I wish to present a form of therapeutic communication, the teaching story, that embodies a unique mixture of both the educational and the paradox, or absurd.
Riskin, Jules (1976): ‘Nonlabeled’ Family Interaction: Preliminary Report on a Prospective Study. In: Family Process, 15 (4), S. 433–439.
Abstract: This paper is a preliminary report on the first year of a two-year exploratory, prospective study of psychiatrically ‘nonlabeled’ families. The project studies families from a nonpathology-oriented point of view. It focuses primarily on whole-family interaction as it progresses through time. Because of limited funds, only two families are being studied in this exploratory phase. Nevertheless, the work touches on many issues of a general nature that may be of interest to other researchers. Each family has been interviewed once a month for the past year. The paper outlines: procedural matters, including selection criteria and recruitment; data collection, including interviews, rating scales, and ‘clinical’ discussions; processing of data; preliminary findings, including quantitative and qualitative aspects; and problem areas, including methodological and ethical aspects.
Bloch, Donald A. (1976): Catalogue of Family Training Centers. In: Family Process, 15 (4), S. 441–446.
Abstract: There is clearly a need for a complete, systematically organized, list of facilities that provide training in family therapy. The following two sections of this report will discuss some aspects of the issue and will present two preliminary versions of such a catalogue. FAMILY PROCESS proposes to assist in assembling such a complete list and to help make it widely available. The field is changing so rapidly that such an effort can be only partially successful, but it should be of value. To accomplish this, we need your assistance. As we all know, there is an enormous variety of facilities offering instruction in family therapy. Some are large with complete and ambitious programs; others are new and small; many centers are free-standing but a surprising number are part of larger educational institutions; also, a significant group is associated with in-service teaching programs of social agencies, hospitals and the like. The programs may limit themselves to an occasional workshop, may see themselves as training complete family therapists, or as adding an additional modality to complete a therapeutic armamentarium.