Whitaker, Carl A. (1975): Psychotherapy of the Absurd: With a Special Emphasis on the Psychotherapy of Aggression. In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 1–16.
Abstract: Any discussion of psychotherapy must begin by defining the character of psychotherapy one intends to present. Are we talking about reparative psychotherapy? Are we talking about the relief of symptoms? Are we talking about character restructuring? Are we talking about a growth-accelerating experience? Qualitatively, the character of psychotherapy patterns may take many forms. A classification could include:
(a) Interpersonal feedback as in group psychotherapy, some sensitivity training experiences, and communication training.
(b) The development of self-induced feedbacka kind of recycling experience with content and affect rediscovered or re-experienced, as in the psychoanalytic pattern.
(c) Psychological education, as in rational psychotherapy and the late phase in the usual transference kind of treatment. This psychotherapeutic process is very much like the parent-child conference with a late adolescent offspring.
(d) A here-and-now experience with a professional who can share in activating and accelerating the feedback to the patient by his own non-rational participation and by his here-and-now growth process.
Mishler, Elliot G. & Nancy E. Waxler (1975): The Sequential Patterning of Interaction in Normal and Schizophrenic Families. In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 17–50.
Abstract: Social interaction is patterned and organized through time. This states the obvious. Nevertheless, this critical feature of interaction has received relatively little empirical study. The vast amount of research on interaction in small groups and families would be summarized with fair accuracy by the statement that there has been almost exclusive emphasis on summary or aggregate measures of behavior, that is, on measures of behavior summed and averaged across an interval of time to provide overall indexes. In contrast, this paper focuses on the sequential patterning of interaction through time. The data are derived from discussions within family triads consisting of parents and an adult, male child. This is one part of a larger study of family interaction (described more fully in Mishler and Waxler, 12) in which the central question is whether there are differences between families with a schizophrenic child and “normal” families; this contrast will be retained in the present analysis. The primary method used is a modification of multivariate informational analysis, or MIA (see Attneave, 1, and Garner, 5); other statistical procedures are used where appropriate. The first section of the paper briefly reviews related studies and outlines the background of our work.
Epstein, Nathan B. & Jack Santa-Barbara (1975): Conflict Behavior in Clinical Couples: Interpersonal Perceptions and Stable Outcomes. In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 51–66.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between a couple’s perceptions of each other while engaged in a conflict situation, and their management of the conflict itself. One-hundred-eighty couples undergoing family therapy interacted in a mixed-motive game that served as the standard conflict situation. Each couple’s interactions were classified into one of four categories, depending upon how they managed this conflict. The interpersonal perceptions of each group were then examined, and several differences were found. Couples who resolved the conflict in a cooperative manner perceived each other as cooperative and themselves expressed more appeasing intentions than any other group. Couples who managed the conflict in a mutually destructive manner perceived each other as competitive and themselves expressed the highest level of exploitative and defensive intentions. Couples who developed either a dominant-submissive relationship, or those who waivered between cooperating and competing and failed to attain any stable solution to the conflict, also differed from each of the other groups.
Sluzki, Carlos E. (1975): The Coalitionary Process in Initiating Family Therapy. In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 67–77.
Abstract: The observation and use of the coalitionary process constitute a substantial component of family therapy. Through monitoring this variable, the therapist can rationally establish basic ground rules, that is, lay down metacommunicational principles, that will frame and guide an effective course of treatment. In addition, as the coalitionary configuration in the course of family therapy replicates crucial family stereotypes, its careful analysis allows the calibration and refinement of therapeutic strategies.
de Shazer, Steve (1975): Brief Therapy: Two’s Company. In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 79–93.
Abstract: The triad is a key element in family therapy. It is clinically useful to conceptualize it as a unit with a structure of its own. This paper suggests that a typical triadic system consists of a pair of allies and an isolate, or ‘odd-man-out,’ all of whom are ‘stuck’ in a rigid pattern that has become dysfunctional. The therapist can break the pattern by developing interventions specifically designed to create new alliances and thus broaden the family’s behavioral repertoire.
Horowitz, Leah (1975): Treatment of the Family with a Dying Member. In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 95–106.
Abstract: This is a report of the treatment of two families with a dying member. The focus is on the uses of transference and countertransference in the therapeutic process.
Bloch, Donald A. (1975): Notes and Comment. In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 107–110.
Watzlawick, Paul (1975): Review – Mara Selvini-Palazzoli: Self-Starvation: From the Intrapsychic to the Transpersonal Approach to Anorexia Nervosa. London 1974. In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 111–112.
Rabkin, Richard (1975): Review – Robert A. Ravich & Barbara Wyden (1974): Predictable Pairing: The Structure of Human Atoms. New York (Peter H. Wyden). In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 112–114.
La Perriere, Kitty & Nathan W. Ackerman (1975): Review – Salvador Minuchin (1974): Families and Family Therapy. Cambridge, MA (Harvard University Press). In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 114–115.
Levine, Donald N. (1975): Review – Roger W. Libby & Robert N. Whitehurst (Eds.)(1973): Renovating Marriage: Toward New Sexual Life-Styles. Danville, CA (Consensus Publishers). In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 116–116.
Whitaker, Carl A. (1975): Review – Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy & Geraldine M. Spark (1973): Invisible Loyalties: Reciprocity in Inter-Generational Family Therapy. Hagerstown (Harper and Row). In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 117–117.
Abstracts of Literature. (1975): In: Family Process, 14 (1), S. 127–130.
Wild, Cynthia M., Linda N. Shapiro & Louise Goldenberg (1975): Transactional Communication Disturbances in Families of Male Schizophrenics. In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 131–160.
Abstract: Criteria were developed for scoring the interaction of families (mother, father, son) of schizophrenics, psychiatrically hospitalized nonschizophrenic controls, and normal controls, on transactional Attention Difficulties, Closure Difficulties, Problem-Solving Efficiency, and Dominance. These variables were scored by observers watching the interaction, from tapes, and from transcripts of the sessions. Tape-scoring was the most efficient and effective in discriminating the three groups. Mothers’, couples’ (mother and father), and families’ total Amorphous Attention Difficulties scores were higher in the schizophrenic than in the normal control group; but families of both hospitalized and normal controls were distinguished from families of schizophrenics only when mothers’ Amorphous Difficulties and fathers’ Closure Difficulties were considered together. The groups were similar on Problem-Solving Efficiency. Fathers of schizophrenics were most Dominant, both within their families and compared with fathers in the other two groups.
Stewart, Ralph H., Tom C. Peters, Stephen Marsh & Melinda J. Peters (1975): An Object-Relations Approach to Psychotherapy with Marital Couples, Families, and Children. In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 161–178.
Abstract: AN APPROACH to object relations is presented here that conceptualizes the dynamics of interpersonal relationships. Although it is beyond the scope of this paper to provide a thorough review of the object-relations school of thought, the concepts introduced here have direct clinical implications for understanding and influencing the dynamics of the patient-therapist dyad, of the marital pair, and of the family unit. Included are the following concepts: (a) Couples in conflict are viewed as more similar than dissimilar despite apparent differences; (b) The therapist’s countertransference reactions are seen as not irrational but a valid reflection of the patient’s struggle; (c) The adult or child who is the identified patient is often a carrier or container of the split-off, unacceptable impulses of the other(s); (d) The individual is perceived as part of a unit in which even the more obvious pathological traits have an inherent healthy reparative function.
Irwin, Eleanor C. & Elaine S. Malloy (1975): Family Puppet Interview. In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 179–191.
Abstract: At the Pittsburgh Child Guidance Center and the Family Therapy Clinic of Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, a number of expressive modalities have been utilized in work with individuals, groups and families. One technique that has been clinically rewarding in diagnosis as well as in therapy has been the Family Puppet Interview, a symbolic and interactive procedure that involves the whole family simultaneously. The value of this activity lies not only in the wealth of interactive data but in the symbolic family fantasy material that the interview generates. This paper will describe the procedure and present several case examples to illustrate its application.
Rueveni, Uri (1975): Network Intervention with a Family in Crisis. In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 193–203.
Abstract: This paper presents the process of network intervention with the Kellys who initially sought help for marital problems, continued in therapy by including their 16-year-old son, and ended up with a network assembly of 35 family members, relatives, friends and neighbors meeting at home to help solve the family’s on-going conflicts.
Gordon, Betty N. & Kate L. Kogan (1975): A Mother-Instruction Program: Analysis of Intervention Procedures. In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 205–221.
Abstract: A variety of techniques have been used to train parents as therapists, and while many research efforts have produced carefully controlled studies documenting behavior change, few have analyzed in detail the procedures used to produce the change. As part of a larger research program aimed at teaching mothers to alter their interaction with their children, detailed analysis of the intervention procedures was carried out. These procedures consisted of instructions given to the mothers via a ‘bug-in-the-ear’ device while they were actively engaged in interaction with their children. Instructions were categorized according to two principles: (a) the type of statements made to mothers; and (b) the kinds of behaviors we were encouraging mothers to exhibit. Results show that the amount of interpersonal behavior change was not related to intervention statements. Intervention statements were related to specific problem behaviors indicated by mothers at inital contact, and to the age of the child. Behavior change tended to be related to the number of problem behaviors indicated by mothers but not to any one specific behavior problem. Several issues raised by this study are discussed.
Hershey, Sibilla & Emmy Werner (1975): Dominance in Marital Decision Making in Women’s Liberation and Non-Women’s Liberation Families. In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 223–233.
Abstract: Fourteen couples of whom the wife was associated with the Women’s Liberation Movement (WLM) and 14 ‘traditional’ couples were interviewed using a modified version of the Revealed Differences Technique. The WLM-associated wives differed significantly from the control group in the dominance indices of ‘Speaks Last’ (p < .001) and ‘Time Spoken’ (p < .05) and in the content of responses to two of the ten interview questions. Analysis indicated that the WLM wives were more self-reliant, while the control-group wives were more passive and dependent. The two groups did not differ significantly on the ‘Speaks First’ and ‘Decisions Won’ indices of dominance and the conflict measures.
Gordon, James S. (1975): Working with Runaways and Their Families: How the SAJA Community Does it. In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 235–262.
Abstract: This paper presents an account of the development, philosophy, and delivery of a particular kind of human service: counseling with runaways and their families that is based in a Runaway House. It attempts to show some of the relationships between the work of effective counseling, the set of the counselors (almost all paraprofessionals), and the setting in which counseling takes place (a weekly ‘Family Seminar’ that serves a Runaway House functioning as one collective in a community of social service projects, Special Approaches to Juvenile Assistance [SAJA]).
Ravich, Robert A. (1975): The Ravich Interpersonal Game/Test: Comments on Liebowitz and Black’s Paper: „The Structure of the Ravich Interpersonal Game/Test (RIG/T)“ (Fam. Proc., 13: 169-183). In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 263–267.
Abstract: It was gratifying to me to read the article by Bernard Liebowitz and Michael Black on “The Structure of the Ravich Interpersonal Game/Test (RIG/T)” (Fam. Proc., 13: 169-183). There are several important points that I should like to comment upon. 1. The fact that a single instrument has the capacity to identify patterns of interaction of particular dyads and can be utilized also in the study of an aggregate sample of 75 married couples is of considerable significance. This is particularly so when the data being collected is totally objective and does not rely upon rater and inter-rater reliability, which are always open to question.
This indicates that the RIG/T is an extremely sophisticated instrument that provides important research as well as clinical opportunities. 2. Under the heading “Representativeness of the RIG/T,” the authors discuss “three sources of data variance that could potentially increase the number of dimensions, thereby casting wider the representativeness of the RIG/T” (p. 181).
Notes and Comment. (1975): In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 269–273.
Kadis, Leslie (1975): Review – Irma L. Stein (1974): Systems Theory, Science and Social Work. Metuchen, N.J. (The Scarecrow Press). In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 275–275.
Olsen, Martin G. (1975): Review – R. V. Fitzgerald (1973): Conjoint Marital Therapy. New York (Jason Aronson). In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 275–276.
Olsen, Martin G. (1975): Review – Anne Steinmann & David J. Fox (1974): The Male Dilemma: How to Survive the Sexual Revolution. New York (Jason Aronson). In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 276–277.
Abstracts of Literature. (1975): In: Family Process, 14 (2), S. 281–284.
Wertheim, Eleanor S. (1975): The Science and Typology of Family Systems II. Further Theoretical and Practical Considerations. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 285–309.
Abstract: Family systems are conceptualized as stable, but open, control systems characterized by: (a) formal organization, similar in principle to that of other complex, organic systems – physical, cognitive (11), or social; (b) freedom of action, reserved for human, ‘purposefu’ systems (1). These characteristics are linked to auto-regulatory processes mediated by morphostasis (16), which insures systemic stability, and morphogenesis (16), which enables the system to change in accordance with the demands of intra- and extra-systemic reality. The latter two concepts, earlier used to construct a typology of family systems (19), are here further theoretically elaborated and operationally defined (1). Morphostasis is tied to the system’s: (a) behavioral structure, embodied in a network of ground rules and meta-rules, as defined, and organized according to a principle of hiearchical linkage; (b) behavioral functioning, regulated by rule circuits in accordance with a principle of functional linkage. Morphogenesis is conceptualized as a serial, decision-making, change-producing process, dependent on specified, necessary, and sufficient conditions for its occurrence. The role of pragmatic, perceptual meanings (1) and of biological/experiential and conscious/unconscious factors in the system’s auto-regulation are considered, as well as research approaches to some of these problems. The implications of the present theoretical rationale for the systematic testing and clinical use of the published family system typology (19) and for some more general issues concerning psychological theory, as well as the modern Western family and society, are discussed.
Bank, Stephen & Michael D. Kahn (1975): Sisterhood-Brotherhood is Powerful: Sibling Sub-Systems and Family Therapy. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 311–337.
Abstract: Sibling interaction is an often overlooked aspect of family functioning. Individual development and many family behavior patterns may be attributed to autonomous activities within the sibling sub-system. A number of phenomena in which siblings have profound influence upon one another are explored. Siblings collude and align with each other, at times help each other resist the powerful vertical influences of parents. Other sibling systems serve to enmesh the youngsters even more with parents. Important sib-behavior patterns include: the death or departure of siblings; the interplay between the sibling sub-system and the parenting system; and the roles that ‘well’ siblings play vis-√†-vis their ‘sick’ siblings during family crises. The sibling relationship is seen as a life-long process, highly influential throughout the life cycle. Understanding of sibling sub-system structure and dynamics can lead to more flexible therapeutic interventions. Direct work with siblings provides the therapist with more options and greater leverage in producing change for all siblings, as well as for other family members.
Wetherill, Phyllis S. (1975): Predictability, Failure, and Guilt in Suicide: A Personal Account. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 339–370.
Abstract: The lifetime medical, social and psychiatric history of a young man who took his life at age twenty-one is presented as his mother observed and recorded it. The predictability of the suicide is discussed; questions are raised about personal and professional responsibility and guilt.
Plone, Anne (1975): Marital and Existential Pain: Dialectic in Bergman’s ‘Scenes From a Marriage’. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 371–378.
Abstract: Marital pain and existential pain are discussed in terms of the movie ‘Scenes From a Marriage’ by the Swedish director, Ingmar Bergman.
Lenthall, Gerard (1975): A Tribute to Two Masters. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 379–388.
Abstract: Two of Betty MacDonald’s children’s stories provide a focus for viewing change. The viewpoint used is that of a clinical hypnotist with a family-systems orientation. Two treatment situations are considered: one is an outpatient setting; the other involves a residential program.
Peal, Ethel (1975): ‘Normal’ Sex Roles: An Historical Analysis. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 389–409.
Abstract: Parental sex-role performance has been used as a criterion for differentiating normal and pathogenic families. Sex roles assumed to be normative are normative only for a specific society at a specific time. Sex roles assumed to be normative in the modern, urban, middle-class family were determined by economic and social changes that took place in the early nineteenth century. These changes effected a new division of function between the sexes that had serious psychological consequences. A behavior code was formulated as a social response to the need to facilitate adaptation. The behavior prescribed in this code is behavior now defined by sociologists as normative. The problems the code attempted to alleviate have not diminished, and there is evidence suggesting that the prescribed behavior is itself a source of psychological strains. Social role performance, therefore, is an unsatisfactory criterion for identifying pathogenic families.
Harbin, Henry T. & Howard M. Maziar (1975): The Families of Drug Abusers: A Literature Review. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 411–431.
Abstract: This paper reveiws all relevant literature concerning the family background of compulsive drug abusers. The main content of the completed research is summarized and methodological criticisms are made. Future considerations for research on families of drug abusers are suggested.
Stanton, M. Duncan (1975): Family Therapy Training: Academic and Internship Opportunities for Psychologists. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 433–439.
Abstract: Institutions that train psychologists in psychotherapy skills have generally neglected the family approach. This article provides information on both university departments of psychology and psychology internship facilities that include family therapy training in their programs.
Starr, Sheldon (1975): Review – Virginia Satir: Videotape: Family in Crisis, 59-minute videotape of Virginia Satir, produced by Peoplemaking, Inc., distributed by Science and Behavior Books, Palo Alto, California. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 441–441.
Kadis, Leslie (1975): Review – Helm Stierlin (1974): Separating Parents and Adolescents: A Perspective on Running Away, Schizophrenia, and Waywardness. New York (Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co.). In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 441–443.
Plone, Anne (1975): Review – Violet Franks and Vasanti Burtle (Eds.)(1974): Women in Therapy: New Psychotherapies for a Changing Society. New York (Brunner/Mazel). In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 443–445.
Kadis, Leslie (1975): Review – Ira D. Glick & David R. Kesler (1974): Marital and Family Therapy. New York (Grune and Stratton). In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 445–445.
Glick, Ira D. (1975): Abstracts of Literature. In: Family Process, 14 (3), S. 453–455.
Hoffman, Lynn (1975): ‘Enmeshment’ and the Too Richly Cross-Joined System. In: Family Process, 14 (4), S. 457–468.
Abstract: This paper traces out a connection between Minuchin’s concept of an ‘enmeshed’ family and Ashby’s discussion of the problems inherent in a system in which all the parts are tightly interlocked. Adaptiveness to change in such a system will depend on the possibility for the joins between parts to become temporarily inactive. This observation supports maneuvers in family therapy that emphasize the creation of boundaries between subsystems, differentiating individuals from one another, and blocking customary sequences of interaction.
Cohen, Carl I. & June Corwin (1975): An Application of Balance Theory to Family Treatment. In: Family Process, 14 (4), S. 469–479.
Abstract: The formulations of Heider’s Balance Theory are reviewed. An application of Balance Theory to the diagnosis and treatment of family dysfunction is demonstrated.
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T. (1975): Treatment of Temper Tantrums by a Paradoxical Intervention. In: Family Process, 14 (4), S. 481–485.
Abstract: In the present case, a paradoxical intervention was employed in the treatment of a 4-year-old boy for temper tantrums. Temper tantrums, which had been a daily occurrence, disappeared entirely after the second session. A follow-up at nine months indicated there had been no further tantrums.
Erickson, Gerald D. (1975): The Concept of Personal Network in Clinical Practice. In: Family Process, 14 (4), S. 487–498.
Abstract: The practice of clinicians in all the helping professions has undergone wide-ranging change in the past two decades. This change has been uneven and halting, but an essential aspect has been a movement toward a wider arena of practice, including a variety of social network practices. The concept of personal network holds high promise for becoming a major unifying framework in clinical practice: as an analytic viewpoint, as a schema for problem location, and as an arena of practice and research. This paper will review the developing strands of network practice, examine some of the forms and characteristics of personal networks, and consider several theoretical and practice issues.
Alexander, Bruce K. & Gary S. Dibb (1975): Opiate Addicts and Their Parents. In: Family Process, 14 (4), S. 499–514.
Abstract: A minority of opiate addicts, especially young males, maintain close ties with their parents. These families, referred to here as ‘addict-families,’ are characterized by: (a) much greater success by the parents in meeting reality demands than by the addicts; (b) apparent congeniality and closeness but an absence of effective communication; (c) unsuccessful attempts by the parents to control the addict’s behavior; (d) a tendency for the father to dominate the mother; (e) extreme overindulgence of the addict by one or both parents; (f) absence of parental support for movement toward adult responsibility in the addict; (g) family consensus in perceiving the addict as failing by conventional values. The characteristics seem to perpetuate the addiction, and the addiction appears to maintain the stability of the family.
Sølvberg, Helge Arnulf & Rolv Mikkel Blakar (1975): Communication Efficiency in Couples With and Without a Schizophrenic Offspring. In: Family Process, 14 (4), S. 515–534.
Abstract: A new, experimental method was developed to study language and communication in schizophrenia, employing the device of a map task. Two subjects are given what they believe are identical maps. Subject A is called upon to explain a route to Subject B, whose map has, in fact, an additional street marked on it. Comparing five parent dyads of schizophrenic patients (Group S) with a matched group of five parent dyads of normals (Group N), both groups performed equally well on the training route (for which the maps were identical), but on the experimental route, four out of the five Group S couples were unable to solve the problem. (As a side-light, it was learned subsequently that the fifth Group S couple had previously received some family therapy.) Further qualitative analysis was done on the data. The results have stimulated additional research using this experimental approach.
Lickorish, John R. (1975): A Behavioral Interactional Model for Assessing Family Relationships. In: Family Process, 14 (4), S. 535–558.
Abstract: A behavioral interactional model (B.I.M.) of the family is described, which is based upon Bertalanffy’s definition of a ‘system.’ The model has a logical structure derived from the formal properties of dyads. The features of dyadic interaction, combined with the ‘constituent analysis’ of protocols, provide a method of analyzing and comparing views about family relationships. The method is illustrated by analyzing two parents’ views of their family.
Schultz, Stephen J. (1975): A Scheme for Specifying Interaction Units. In: Family Process, 14 (4), S. 559–578.
Abstract: The specification of units is an important issue in any family interaction research in which samples of communication are coded. This paper first reviews the methods investigators have used to cope with this problem and then outlines a new Interaction Unitizing Scheme for preparing type-scripts using the ‘speech’ as the interaction unit. Subsequently, coding can be done directly from these unitized transcripts, or they can be used to define units when coding from audio or videotape. Reliability methods are outlined, and data are presented indicating that the unitizing scheme has high inter-coder reliability.