Online-Journal für systemische Entwicklungen

Family Process 1977

Heft 1

Steinglass, Peter, Donald I. Davis & David Berenson (1977): Observations Of Conjointly Hospitalized ‘Alcoholic Couples’ During Sobriety And Intoxication: Implications For Theory and Therapy. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 1–16. 

Abstract: This paper presents clinical data from a research study designed to examine the relation between alcohol consumption and interactional behavior in ‘alcoholic couples.’ The central innovative feature of the study was the simultaneous admission to an inpatient setting of up to three couples, one or both members of which was alcoholic. The in-patient experience was part of an intensive, six-week, multiple-couples, group-therapy program. During hospitalization couples were encouraged to reproduce as closely as possible their usual drinking patterns and interactional behavior. Therapists utilized observations of interactional behavior during intoxication and sobriety to formulate central interactional and psychological issues for each couple. The authors utilized these same observations to develop the interactional model of alcoholism in families that is presented in detail in this paper. This model is an extension of earlier work delimiting an interactional theory of alcoholism based on general systems concepts. Two extensive case histories are presented to illustrate both theoretical issues and the treatment process.

Alexander, Bruce K. & Gary S. Dibb (1977): Interpersonal Perception in Addict Families. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 17–28. 

Abstract: A technique called the ‘Interperception Matrix’ was devised to investigate interpersonal perception in eight families in which addicted offspring maintained close parental ties. The addict families were compared with eight matched control families. Several differences were found between the two types of families. In addict families: (a) addicts, their fathers, and their mothers all held the addicts in low regard; (b) addicts were described as very different from their parents; (c) parents and addicts disagreed more in their perception of the addicts; (d) there was a consensus that the addicts’ major flaws were passivity and dependence; and (e) the addicts’ mothers described themselves as less agreeable and more passive. Addict families and control families were similar in their descriptions of an ideal for the offspring and in generally favorable descriptions of both parents. These results extend and partially validate clinical observations that social perception in addict families serves to perpetuate opiate addiction by undermining addicts’ self-esteem. These data, in conjunction with new understandings emerging from the addiction literature, support an approach to addiction therapy based on reframing family perception.

Ritterman, Michele Klevens (1977): Paradigmatic Classification of Family Therapy Theories. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 29–48. 

Abstract: This review proposes a method for classifying theories of family therapy in terms of the ideal categories from which they derive. Establishing the relationship between a family-system theory and a more general world view facilitates the identification of unique aspects of theory and lays the groundwork for a theoretically consistent integration of therapy and research.

Crowhurst, Lennard & Henry L. Lennard (1977): Architecture: Effect of Territory, Boundary, and Orientation on Family Functioning. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 49–66. 

Abstract: Most students of family process and family therapy practitioners have failed to pay sufficient attention to the importance of the physical home environment. The thesis of this paper is that the physical home environment may facilitate or constrain inter- and intrafamily interaction, role relationships, values, and identities. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the status of current knowledge concerning family interaction and the home environment. We propose a conceptual framework to facilitate discussion of the nature of man-environment relationships and focus attention on those aspects of the physical environment that have been noted as profoundly influencing family life. These are illustrated by three brief vignettes drawn from case studies of families in their home environment.

Hardcastle, Dexter R. (1977): A Mother-Child, Multiple-Family, Counseling Program: Procedures and Results. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 67–74. 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a family counseling program on the following variables: (a) parents’ family satisfaction, perceived integration, and family congruence; (b) the number of positive and negative responses communicated among family members; and (c) an undesirable behavior exhibited by one child in the family. The sample consisted of 14 families in the experimental condition and 11 families in the control condition. Mother and one child had responsibility for teaching other family members the principles taught during the multiple-family category sessions. The findings indicated: (a) parents receiving family counseling increased significantly their family-satisfaction and perceived-integration scores as compared to the parents not receiving counseling; (b) families receiving counseling increased significantly the number of positive responses among them compared with the control families; (c) children receiving counseling decreased significantly the frequency of exhibiting a specific undesirable behavior; and (d) no significant differences were found between the groups of families in parents’ family-congruence scores and in the number of negative responses communicated among family members.

Kaplan, Stuart L. (1977): Structural Family Therapy for Children of Divorce: Case Reports. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 75–83. 

Abstract: Structural family therapy techniques for treating families with a parental divorce in which a child is symptomatic are described. The family configurations considered are: mother, child, and maternal grandparents; overprotective mother and child; helpless and mildly neglectful mother; father; new family formation; and couples who divorce and marry new spouses.

Bergner, Raymond M. (1977): The Marital System of the Hysterical Individual. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 85–95. 

Abstract: The purpose of the present article is to supplement the considerable body of clinical literature that focuses on hysterical behavior from an individual perspective. Based on findings from a total sample of 16 couples, this paper accomplishes this task in a threefold manner. First, the characteristic type of individual who selects and is selected by the hysterical individual as a life partner is described. Second, the type of relationship these two individuals typically develop, which promotes and reinforces severely maladaptive behavior on the part of both is delineated. Third, a number of specific recommendations regarding psychotherapy for this type of relationship are proffered.

Breslow, Diane Birenbaum & Barbara Green Hron (1977): Time-Extended Family Interviewing. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 97–103. 

Abstract: This paper presents a family-therapy technique – time-extended family interviewing – in which the therapist extends the traditional one-hour interview to three to seven hours, by plan, at a particular point in the life of a case and for a particular purpose. Extended sessions promote movement in a case for a variety of reasons. Furthermore, the use of such sessions highlights the dimension of time as an important element of good casework practice.

Guthell, Thomas G. & Nicholas C. Avery (1977): Multiple Overt Incest as Family Defense Against Loss. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 105–116. 

Abstract: A case report of father-daughter incest is presented that illustrates the way in which overt incest can function as a multi-determined familial defense against separation and loss. The case is further distinguished by: (a) multiple incest and (b) family therapy – an approach infrequently described in the literature on this problem. The authors have adopted the psychodynamic view that incest expresses the collective psychopathology of all the family members as well as their common adaptational capacities. Specifically, we have attempted to demonstrate that separation anxiety was a shared dread in this family and that incest defended against this painful prospect.

Bodin, Arthur M. & Laura J. Bodin (1977): The Topsy-Turviness of Mrs. Piggle Wiggle: Its Symbolic Significance. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 117–117. 

Tittler, Bennett I., Steven Friedman & Elizabeth J. Klopper (1977): A System for Tailoring Change Measures to the Individual Family. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 119–121. 

Abstract: The focus of this project is the problem of evaluating change in families. Prior work has tended to limit itself to anecdotal or self-report data. By and large, the studies that have evaluated a family intervention by observing family interactions have failed to demonstrate change. A major drawback in such studies has been the assumption that the few interaction variables selected (e.g., amount of silent time) have roughly the same salience and meaning for all the families studied. The measurement system described here was developed to fulfill four methodological requirements: (a) to represent the family as a whole; (b) to be sensitive to change; (c) to contain multiple measures; and (d) to be adaptable to the variation among families. The solution to these requirements, presented here, is a system for tailoring measures to individual families.

Bloch, Donald A. (1977): Notes and Comment. In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 123–127. 

Loewenstein, Sophie (1977): Review –  Helm Stierlin (1975): Adolf Hitler: Familienperspektiven. Frankfurt a.M. (Suhrkamp). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 129–130. 

Laquer, H. Peter (1977): Review –  Helm Stierlin (1975): Adolf Hitler: Familienperspektiven. Frankfurt a.M. (Suhrkamp). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 130–131. 

Kadis, Leslie B. (1977): Review –  John Grinder & Richard Bandler (1976): The Structure of Magic, II: A Book about Communication and Change. Palo Alto (Science and Behavior Books). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 131–133. 

Hall, Alyson (1977): Review –  Sue Walrond-Skinner (1976): Family Therapy: the Treatment of Natural Systems. London/Henley/Boston (Routledge & Kegan Paul). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 133–133. 

Breslin, Ken (1977): Review – Edith Atkin & Estelle Rubin: Part-Time Father. New York (The Vanguard Press). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 133–134. 

Ford, Julian (1977): Review – Leo J. Kelly (1976): Sex Through Affection. Philadelphia (Dorrance & Co.). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 134–134. 

Hilliard, Jomary (1977): Review – Charles M. Whipple, Jr. & Dick Whittle (1976): The Compatibility Test: How to Choose the Right Partner and Make Your Marriage a Success. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (Prentice-Hall). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 134–134. 

Leiderman, P. Herbert (1977): Review – Margaret M. Lawrence (1975): Young Inner City Families. New York (Behavioral Publications). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 134–134. 

Becker, Jacqueline (1977): Review – Sol Gordon & Mina McD. Wollin (1976). New York (Oxford Book Co.). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 134–135. 

Becker, Jacqueline (1977): Review – Richard G. Niemi (1974): How Family Members Perceive Each Other: Political and Social Attitudes in Two Generations. New Haven (Yale University Press). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 135–135. 

Price, Gail (1977): Review – William G. Dyer (1975): Creating Closer Families: Principles of Positive Family Interaction. Provo, Utah (Brigham Young University Press). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 135–135. 

Shisslak, Catherine (1977): Review – John Narciso & David Burkett (1975): Declare Yourself: Discovering the Me in Relationships. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (Prentice-Hall). In: Family Process, 16 (1), S. 135–135. 

Heft 2

Kupetz, Karen, Judie Larosa, Micheline Klagsbrun & Donald I. Davis (1977): Drug Abuse and the Family. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 141–147. 

Abstract: The Family and Drug Abuse Symposium held on July 10-12, 1975, brought together individuals who possess clinical and/or research expertise in the area of family research and substance abuse. The purpose of the symposium was directed toward assessing the current state of knowledge in the field and delineating directions for future work. The role of family interaction in causing or maintaining a drug abuse problem has only recently become the focus of research and innovative treatment efforts. This special section is intended to acquaint therapists and researchers with recent work in the field; the papers are revised versions of materials originally prepared for the symposium. This first paper offers a brief overview of the symposium and summarizes issues that arose from each of the four workshops: I. Psychosocial Research; II. Clinical Observations; III. Clinical Programs; and IV. Recommendations Made to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The next paper is a review of recent studies in research and treatment that have approached substance abuse from a family viewpoint. Other research methods that appear relevant to the study of families with a drug-abusing member are discussed. Three commentaries on this review follow. The last paper describes an extensive effort to implement and evaluate family therapy within an existing drug treatment facility.

Klagsbrun, Micheline & Donald I. Davis (1977): Substance Abuse and Family Interaction. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 149–164. 

Abstract: The authors propose that substance use and abuse may be understood and effectively treated when the individual user or abuser is viewed in the context of his family or stable living group. This viewpoint attributes an important role in the maintenance of individual substance abuse to interactional processes within the family system. The theoretical assumptions implied by this viewpoint are discussed. A selective literature review examines the available evidence, from both experimental and clinical-descriptive studies, that is relevant to this proposal. The next step toward a more systematic investigation of these ideas is outlined, including testable hypotheses, methodological issues and problems, and potentially useful techniques.

Salzman, Carl (1977): Commentary on Klagsbrun, Micheline & Donald I. Davis (1977): Substance Abuse and Family Interaction. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 149–164. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 164–168. 

Abstract: Salzman’s commentary initially examines two theoretical considerations of the genesis of substance abuse. He elaborates on the hypothesis that changes in the family precede abuse and relates it to conceptual similarities with research on schizophrenic families. He points out that the proposed research that focuses on ongoing processes rather than causality also fails to identify factors leading to the selection of symptomatology. The author concludes with comments on his work in the area of psychoactive drugs and group functioning and suggests that the inclusion of the following methodologies in research design might be instructive: (a) the combining of self, group, and experimenter observations; (b) the comparison of family interactional patterns when the drug-abusing member is under chemical influence and when he is not; and (c) informal observations and discussions focused on the family’s perception of the research as well as on task performance.

Friedman, Alfred S. (1977): Commentary on Klagsbrun, Micheline & Donald I. Davis (1977): Substance Abuse and Family Interaction. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 149–164. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 168–170. 

Abstract: In his critique, Friedman pays particular attention to the methodological problems confronting any research in this area. He emphasizes the difficulty in achieving a compromise between the global and the microanalytic viewpoints. He discusses the possible functions that drug use may serve in the family system and suggests that experimental intoxication may be a powerful investigative tool in this context.

Friedman, Jack (1977): Commentary on Klagsbrun, Micheline & Donald I. Davis (1977): Substance Abuse and Family Interaction. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 149–164. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 170–173. 

Abstract: Jack Friedman questions whether the concept that family processes maintain substance abuse naturally leads to the assumption that interruption of the interactional pattern will alter drug use, i.e., transfer a symptom. He feels that it is important to look at factors related to the onset of abuse by the acquisition of historical information at the individual, family, and societal level. An epidemiological approach might be the next step in the process of research, for instance, testing out an alternating generational hypothesis. For both an historical and epidemiological approach, it is important to address the relationship between families and researchers; this could be illuminated by some naturalistic observation. Final comments stress the importance of reliability of instrumentation, especially in the area of self-report about others, where little work has been done.

Ziegler-Driscoll, Genevra, Donald I. Davis & Micheline Klagsbrun (1977): Family Research Study at Eagleville Hospital and Rehabilitation Center. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 175–189. 

Abstract: The Eagleville Hospital and Rehabilitation Center Family Study Program is described, presenting an overview of the Family Research Study and the problem areas inherent in coordinating research with a new treatment program; an analysis of the sample of drug abusers, their families, and their course in family treatment is discussed. The Community School Program is included as a demonstration of the potential for effective primary prevention. Areas of promise for future development are reviewed as they provide direction for further clinical and research work with the family and drug abuse.

Stanton, M. Duncan (1977): The Addict as Savior: Heroin, Death, and the Family. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 191–197. 

Abstract: The high mortality rate among drug addicts is seen as a suicidal phenomenon with a family basis. The death wish, or instruction for the addict to die, is often quite clearly expressed by the family. He is placed in the role of savior and martyr. His death is seen as a noble, cleansing sacrifice in which he is often a willing participant.

Harper, James M., A. Lynn Scoresby & W. Duane Boyce (1977): The Logical Levels of Complementary, Symmetrical, and Parallel Interaction Classes in Family Dyads. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 199–209. 

Abstract: It was postulated that the parallel interaction class is a higher logical order than complementary and symmetrical interaction, which appear to be of the same logical type. Father-mother, father-child, and mother-child dyads of 48 families were categorized into complementary, symmetrical, and parallel classes using the Relationship Styles Inventory. Each of the dyads in these three categories was then randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions in which they jointly resolved a moral dilemma. In one condition, the dyads were asked to follow complementary rules, while in the second condition they were instructed to follow symmetrical rules. Results indicated that parallel dyads adjusted to both the complementary and symmetrical conditions, whereas symmetrical and complementary dyads did not successfully accommodate rules outside their own class. The implications in terms of therapeutic intervention and further research are discussed.

Flomenhaft, Kalman & Ross E. Carter (1977): Family Therapy Training: Program and Outcome. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 211–218. 

Abstract: A family therapy training program has been conducted for staff of mental health agencies located throughout Pennsylvania. This paper is a report on the content and results of the four-year-old training program. Three hundred practitioners have been trained in family therapy. The program has also led to the development of a core group of 64 family therapy trainers. There has been an associated delivery of more family-oriented mental health services throughout the Commonwealth.

Geddes, Michael & Joan Medway (1977): The Symbolic Drawing of the Family Life Space. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 219–228. 

Abstract: Several innovative techniques have been developed in the last ten years for facilitating meaningful communication and interaction among family members. These techniques serve the purpose of highlighting relatively stable patterns of verbal and nonverbal communication among family members and bring to the surface various aspects of familial structure, thereby illuminating focal points for intervention. The purpose of the present article is to describe the technique of the Symbolic Drawing of the Family Life Space, to compare this technique with other techniques for facilitating communication and interaction among family members, and to illustrate the clinical use of this technique with case examples. In reviewing the literature, the authors extracted two types of symbolic and interactive procedures, which may be conveniently divided into those that tend to be task-centered and those that tend to be expressive modalities.

Weisfeld, David & Martin S. Laser (1977): Divorced Parents in Family Therapy in a Residential Treatment Setting. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 229–236. 

Abstract: Divorced parents are required to participate together in the family therapy of their child placed in a residential treatment center. Different sources of resistance and treatment techniques are identified and discussed through a theoretical analysis and case study material. The therapy of these fractured families contributed to an elimination of recidivism and, according to followup reports, to significant and sustained improvement in the children’s functioning in school, home, and community activities.

Garrigan, James J. & Andrew F. Bambrick (1977): Introducing Novice Therapists to ‘Go-Between’ Techniques of Family Therapy. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 237–246. 

Abstract: The training of family therapists requires that learning objectives and expectations be specified in empirical terms so that the trainer and trainee can achieve clear goals, identify areas of progress, and meet the special needs of the trainee. This paper articulates the competencies, objectives, and criteria for evaluation used during a time-limited training program for therapists involved in family therapy research conducted at Centennial School of Lehigh University.

Lennard, Henry L. (1977): Notes And Comment. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 247–249. 

Constantine, Larry L. (1977): Review – Thomas C. McGinnis & John U. Ayres (1976): Open Family Living. New York (Doubleday and Company). In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 251–252. 

Greenberg, George S. & Kyle B. Hamm (1977): Review – Philip J. Guerin, Jr. (1976): Family Therapy: Theory and Practice. New York (Gardner Press). In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 252–254. 

Evans, Eldon (1977): Review – Paul Watzlawick & John H. Weakland (Eds.)(1977). New York (W. W. Norton). In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 254–255. 

Segal, Lynn (1977): Review – Milton H. Erickson and Herbert S. Lustig (1976): The Artistry of Milton H. Erickson M.D. Available on videotape cassette, videotape reel, & 16 mm film, with a verbatim transcript. In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 255–256. 

Gallen, Mel, Lewis E. Graham & Sue Young (1977): Review – Gerald H. Zuk (1974): Progress and Practice in Family Therapy. Haverford, Pa. (Psychiatry and Behavioral Science Associates). In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 257–258. 

Bauer, Penny (1977): Review – David J. Kass & Fred F. Stauss (1975): Sex Therapy at Home. New York (Simon and Schuster). In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 258–259. 

Waisbren, Susan (1977): Review – Gail K. Stigen (1976): Heartaches and Handicaps. An Irreverent Survival Manual for Parents. Palo Alto (Science and Behavior Books). In: Family Process, 16 (2), S. 259–259. 

Heft 3

Weakland, John H. (1977): »Family Somatics« – A neglected edge. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 263–272. 

Abstract: Although the family interaction viewpoint has been more widely adopted since it was first introduced and family therapy more widely practiced, there has not been a parallel growth in the practical or theoretical application of the interactional viewpoint. This paper makes a plea for the relevance of this orientation to illness and disease. This area has received some consideration but deserves a much more extensive examination and research effort.

Marshall, John R. & John Neill (1977): The Removal of a Psychosomatic Symptom: Effects on the Marriage. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 273–280. 

Abstract: This study examined the effects on the marriages of twelve patients who underwent intestinal bypass surgery for extreme obesity. Marked conflict and disruption were observed. Most striking were changes in the areas of sexuality and dependence/independence parameters. The authors discuss the function of the symptom of obesity within these marital systems.

Everstine, Diana Sullivan, Arthur M. Bodin & Louis Everstine (1977): Emergency Psychology: A Mobile Service for Police Crisis Calls. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 281–292. 

Abstract: The Emergency Treatment Center, a new program of crisis intervention services, has been in operation since February 1975. This seven-day-a-week, twenty-four-hour-a-day program backs up ten Northern California police departments to provide help to people who are experiencing psychological emergencies such as violent family fights, suicide attempts, and severe emotional disturbance; in addition, the Center responds to any kind of crisis call involving adolescents. The population of the area served is approximately 750,000, of whom approximately 110,000 are adolescents between 10 and 17 years of age.

Ziegler, Robert G. & Peter J. Musliner (1977): Persistent Themes: A Naturalistic Study of Personality Development in The Family. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 293–305. 

Abstract: This pilot longitudinal study of normal children and their families examines the associations noted between behaviors appearing in early childhood and concerns expressed by the same youngster fifteen years later. These concerns were seen to be related to continuing transactions around a particular issue within the family system. A case description of the evolution of the particular patterns of one of the family systems studied and the details of their recurring negotiations includes an examination of two subsystems of the family unit: the mother-infant pair and the parenting couple. The impact of this family system’s struggle upon the developing youngster and her personality as a late adolescent is discussed.

Strelnick, A. H. (1977): Multiple Family Group Therapy: A Review of the Literature. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 307–325. 

Abstract: This review focuses upon multiple family group therapy, its origin in the intersection of family and group therapies, its use in a variety of settings, its specific techniques and group development in individual and ongoing meetings, its goals and dominant themes, its parallels in family and group work. Also discussed are evaluation of outcome of this therapy modality and those dynamics thought to contribute to family change. Areas for further investigation are outined.

Jones, James E. (1977): Patterns of Transactional Style Deviance in the TAT’s of Parents of Schizophrenics. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 327–337. 

Abstract: Parents of schizophrenics show more transactional style deviance in diverse situations than do other parents. In a sample of families of nonschizophrenic outpatient adolescents, a manual for scoring such deviance on stories told for seven TAT cards was developed. This scoring system was shown to be composed of six meaningful factors. When this system was applied to the TAT’s of parents of offspring with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, a total deviance score did not discriminate among the parents. High scores on two particular factors were found only in parents of hospitalized schizophrenics, but four factors were nondiscriminating. Parents of young adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were more likely to show high scores on at least one of these six factors than other parents. Considering the scores of mothers and fathers together yielded the best discrimination of parents of schizophrenia spectrum disorders from other parents.

Trömel-Plötz, Senta (1977): „She is Just Not an Open Person.“: A Linguistic Analysis of a Restructuring Intervention in Family Therapy. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 339–352. 

Abstract: A short exchange from a family therapy treatment with a couple is analyzed in detail according to what the speakers, in this case husband and therapist, do with each other and with the third participant, the wife, in making their utterances. They are seen to be performing a number of different acts with each utterance and an attempt is made to connect these acts with the actual linguistic properties of the utterances used; in this connection the semantic-pragmatic function of the operator, ‘just,’ in one particular reading is discussed. These acts receive further support when the wider linguistic and situational context is considered. The exchange is of linguistic interest because the response of the therapist to the husband seems to be a non sequitur. It is shown, however, that pragmatic coherence, i.e., coherence with respect to the sequence of linguistic acts and moves between the speakers in the given situation, forces an interpretation of the two utterances as a connected text. The exchange is interesting therapeutically because the therapist’s intervention brings immediate change in the husband. This striking therapeutic effect is attributed to the restructuring character of the intervention which sufficiently shifts the balance in the relationship between husband and wife. An analysis of the linguistic properties of the therapist’s utterance shows that the restructuring is achieved by particular syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of the utterance. It turns out that restructuring, as manipulative as it may appear on the surface, is a highly complex, sophisticated and powerful technique. It is not peculiar to family therapy; comparable procedures can be found in other forms of psychotherapy, e.g., psychoanalysis and client-centered therapy, and in general in everyday conversation situations where it is necessary for one speaker to get another speaker to modify what he is saying and to adopt a different view.

Klugman, Jeffry (1977): Owning and Disowning: The Structural Dimension. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 353–356. 

Abstract: Stierlin (11) recently examined owning and disowning in the parent-child relationship from a psychoanalytic-developmental perspective. This paper examines the same phenomena from a structural viewpoint, deriving implications for the conduct of therapy.

Goldman, Janice & James Coane (1977): Family Therapy After the Divorce: Developing a Strategy. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 357–362. 

Abstract: Family therapy with the whole family after a divorce has taken place provides a unique opportunity for intervention. Though the spouses have legally terminated their relationship, their parenting function remains. However, this reality is often clouded by the emotional conflicts generated by the divorce. Family therapy can be useful in facilitating life in the post-divorce period. A four-part model for intervention is described. The first task is to redefine the family as existentially including all members. Next, generational boundaries are firmed in order to reduce the parentification process, often intensified by the parents physical absence. Third, the family needs to have a replay of the history of the marriage to correct developmental distortions and offer a chance to mourn the loss of the intact family. Finally, the therapists attempt to facilitate an emotional divorce. A case study is presented to elucidate the manner in which these steps unfold in treatment.

Korelitz, Ann Z. (1977): Notes and Comment: The Family and Public Policy. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 363–368. 

Abstract: The following statement was prepared by Charles H. Kramer, M.D. founder and director of The Family Institute of Chicago/Center for Family Studies, a Division of the Institute of Psychiatry, Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Dr. Kramer is Professor of Psychiatry at Northwestern University Medical School. The statement was prepared for Mrs. Rosalynn Carter and the President’s Mental Health Commission on the occasion of their visit to the Institute of Psychiatry on April 19, 1977.

Coyne, James C. & Barry Platt (1977): Review – D. J. Kiesler, A. J. Bernstein & J. C. Anchin (1977): Interpersonal Communication: Relationship and the Behavior Therapies. New York (Psychological Dimensions). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 369–370. 

Peterson, Charles & Richard C. Bedrosian (1977): Review – Alan S. Gurman and David G. Rice (Eds.)(1975): Couples in Conflict: New Directions in Marital Therapy. New York (Jason Aronson). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 370–372. 

Massey, W. Frank (1977): Review – Lillian Breslow Rubin (1976): Worlds of Pain: Life in the Working Class Family. New York (Basic Books). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 372–373. 

Waisbren, Susan (1977): Review – Shirley Ardener (Ed.)(1975): New York (John Wiley and Sons). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 373–374. 

Callow, Susan (1977): Review – Elaine Hilberman (1976): The Rape Victim. New York (Basic Books). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 374–374. 

Callow, Susan (1977): Review – Peter Stein (1976): Single. Englewood Cliffs, NJ (Prentice-Hall). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 374–375. 

Dybicz, Marty (1977): Review – Sheldon Kopp (1977): This Side of Tragedy: Psychotherapy as Theater. Palo Alto, CA (Science and Behavior Books). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 375–375. 

Haas, Leonard J. (1977): Review – Bernard I. Murstein (1976): Who Will Marry Whom? Theories and Research in Marital Choice. New York (Springer Publishing Co.). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 375–375. 

Powers, Fawn (1977): Review – Elinore C. Haspel (1976): Marriage in Trouble: A Time of Decision. Chicago (Nelson Hall). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 375–375. 

Dybicz, Marty (1977): Review – David Knox (1975): Marriage: Who? When? Why? Englewood Cliffs, NJ (Prentice-Hall). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 375–376. 

Mayer, Johanna (1977): Review – Gordon Clanton & Lynn G. Smith (Eds.)(1977): Englewood Cliffs, NJ (Prentice-Hall). In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 376–376. 

Glick, Ira D. (1977): Abstract of Literature. In: Family Process, 16 (3), S. 381–384. 

Heft 4

Greenberg, George S. (1977): The Family Interactional Perspective: A Study and Examination of the Work of Don D. Jackson. In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 385–412. 

Abstract: This article presents an overview of the primary contributions of the late Don D. Jackson. It analyzes and attempts to unify the central concepts of what he first referred to as ‘conjoint family therapy.’ Emphasis is upon the theoretical components leading to the development of a behaviorally oriented, nontransference, focused-treatment format, labeled by the author as ‘family interactional psychotherapy.’

Kressel, Kenneth & Morton Deutsch (1977): Divorce Therapy: An In-Depth Survey of Therapists’ Views. In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 413–443. 

Abstract: In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 highly experienced therapists on the criteria of a constructive divorce, the obstacles to achieving such a divorce, and the strategies and tactics of divorce therapy. The primary criterion of a constructive divorce was the successful completion of the process of psychic separation and the protection of the welfare of minor children. Therapy may focus on the decision to get divorced and/or the negotiation of the terms of a divorce settlement. Three types of therapeutic strategies were identified: reflexive interventions by which the therapist orients himself to the marital problems and attempts to gain the trust and confidence of the partners; contextual interventions by which he tries to promote a climate conducive to decision-making; and substantive interventions intended to produce resolution on terms the therapist has come to believe are inevitable or necessary. The nascent state of divorce therapy as an area of therapeutic specialization is noted. The problem of diagnostic criteria for divorce, the relationship between therapists and lawyers, the nature and consequence of therapist impartiality, and the degree to which therapists should mediate the terms of divorce are considered central issues meriting further study.

Selvini Palazzoli, Mara, Luigi Boscolo, Gianfranco Cecchin & Giuliana Prata (1977): Family Rituals A Powerful Tool in Family Therapy. In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 445–453. 

Abstract: The use of systemic models in family therapy obliged our team to devise therapeutic tasks involving the entire family. Among these, one was found to be extremely effective: the prescribing of a family ritual. This article gives details of one such example aimed at the destruction of a myth that had been created by three generations of a family. In order that the reader may have an adequate understanding of this ritual, we shall fully describe the story of the family and of the transgenerational evolution of this myth. In the description of the treatment of the family, certain errors were made by the therapists that will come to light – errors that, as usual, were far more instructive than the actual successes. Eventually, it was the very understanding of these errors and their repercussions that led us to the successful prescription of the ritual. Finally, detailed analysis of the substance and aim of the ritual will illustrate and explain exactly what we mean by the term ritual. For this case history, we shall call the family Casanti.

Caillé, Philippe, Pål Abrahamsen, Charlotte Girolami & Bente Sørbye (1977): A Systems Theory Approach to a Case of Anorexia Nervosa. In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 455–465. 

Abstract: Systems theory views mental and psychosomatic illness as the natural consequences of a dysfunctional human interactional group. The symptom chosen is affected by the symptom carrier’s age, sex, and unique individual characteristics. However, the reason the symptom develops and is maintained is to be found in the system(s) of which the symptom carrier is a part. A human system consists of two or more individuals who have an ongoing, often goal-directed, relationship with each other. The most important human system today is undoubtedly the family. The welfare of the individual is usually related to membership in a vital, well-adjusted family. A dysfunctional family easily becomes dependent on mental or behavioral deviations in one of its members as a means of preventing disintegration. We hope this article’s description of a typical treatment situation will demonstrate how a systems theory approach differs from other forms of family therapy in its evaluations and techniques.

Lieber, Deborah J. (1977): Parental Focus of Attention in a Videotape Feedback Task as a Function of Hypothesized Risk for Offspring Schizophrenia. In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 467–475. 

Abstract: The families of 29 disturbed but nonpsychotic adolescents were observed in a structured task in which they discussed their reactions to viewing themselves interacting on videotape. Measures derived from the Singer-Wynne concept of transactional style deviance were applied to the parental behaviors and related to prior assessments of parental communication disorder based on individual parental TAT protocols. The results confirm the Singer-Wynne hypothesis of the cross-situational stability of transactional style deviance. The most striking finding, however, is that an index of positive focusing behavior differentiates more strongly parents of adolescents hypothesized to be at varying levels of risk for schizophrenia than does the measure of transactional style deviance.

Meyerstein, Israela (1977): Family Therapy Training for Paraprofessionals in a Community Mental Health Center. In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 477–493. 

Abstract: An ecologically oriented family therapy training program is advocated for teaching paraprofessionals to work with high-risk clients in a community mental health setting. The context of training as well as the particular abilities and needs of beginning paraprofessional family therapists are explored in order to design a flexible and effective program in the face of limited resources. This paper describes a variety of educational and supervisory formats such as group supervision, peer supervision, and live supervision. The usefulness of these different models in facilitating skill development and growth in paraprofessionals is evaluated. Recommendations are made to trainers concerning problems encountered in teaching paraprofessionals and in implementing family systems training in community mental health centers.

Berkowitz, David A. (1977): On the Reclaiming of Denied Affects in Family therapy. In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 495–501. 

Abstract: A central developmental task of the family is to help its members develop the capacity to cope with the grief attendant on separation and loss. In order to work through such feelings, each member must first be able to acknowledge the affect as present, internal, and belonging to the self. Depending on the degree of intrapsychic differentiation, and the dread of abandonment, family members may seek to avoid awareness of such feelings within themselves. The disclaimed emotions remain powerful unconscious motivators of behavior, exerting their influence despite their denial. Some typical clinical illustrations of this are provided. Excerpts from conjoint family therapy are then presented to illustrate the therapeutic interventions made in assisting a family to acknowledge denied grief over the separation of one of its members along with unspoken tender feelings within the family. This paper affirms the continued relevance of a psychodynamic, interpretative approach for families struggling with unresolved grief.

Gould, Edward & Ira D. Glick (1977): The Effects of Family Presence and Brief Family Intervention on Global Outcome for Hospitalized Schizophrenic Patients. In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 503–510. 

Abstract: Virtually all modern inpatient psychiatric units operate on the assumptions that family presence, when the identified patient has schizophrenia, does affect outcome and that adding brief family intervention to the treatment prescription will enhance hospital and posthospital outcome. Often the family intervention is believed not adequate in terms of duration or frequency or quality (since trainees are the family therapists), given the standards of some experienced family clinicians. This report addresses these issues by comparing outcome measures for hospitalized patients with schizophrenia by (a) presence of a family and (b) amount and/or kind of family intervention. Most importantly, we wished to learn if global outcome would show change by virtue of family therapy (within the constraints imposed by the above limitations of family intervention).

Holder, Vera (1977): Notes and Comments: DSM III (Continued). In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 511–516. 

Rabkin, Richard (1977): Review – A. C. Skynner (1976): Systems of Family and Marital Psychotherapy. New York (Brunner/Mazel). In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 517–517. 

Weakland, John (1977): Review – Richard Rabkin (1977): Strategic Psychotherapy: Brief and Symptomatic Treatment. New York (Basic Books). In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 518–518. 

Kadis, Leslie (1977): Review – Luciano L’Abate (1976): Understanding and Helping the Individual in the Family. New York (Grune and Stratton). In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 518–519. 

Powers, Fawn (1977): Review – Edwin J. Thomas (1977): Marital Communication and Decision Making: Analysis of Assessment and Change. New York (The Free Press). In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 519–520. 

Fry, William F. (1977): Review – Erik H. Erikson (1977): Toys and Reasons: Stages in the Ritualization of Experience. New York (W. W. Norton). In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 520–522. 

Gordon, Elsa Leita (1977): Review – Richard Bandler, John Grinder & Virginia Satir (1976): Changing With Families: A Book About Further Education for Being Human. Palo Alto (Science and Behavior Books). In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 522–523. 

Draganosky, Joseph E. (1977): Review – Robert A. Glick, Arthur T. Meyerson, Edwin Robbins & John A. Talbott (Eds.)(1976): Psychiatric Emergencies. New York (Grune & Stratton). In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 523–523. 

Glick, Ira D. (1977): Abstracts of Literature. In: Family Process, 16 (4), S. 529–531. 

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